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Techniques are introduced which are applicable to machine construction of digraph maps. These techniques are oriented toward reduction of the number of crossings in a map as a means of improving the readability of hierarchical structures. Permuting, psi-factoring, rotating, twirling, and absorbing are among the techniques considered. Examples are given to illustrate these techniques. When these and related procedures are fully developed for use with machine-interactive processes, they will facilitate group modeling efforts.