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Procedures for efficiently obtaining the governing dynamical equations of motion for single-arm robotic systems are presented. The procedures are based upon Kane's dynamical equations. Euler parameters, partial velocities, partial angular velocities, relative coordinates, and generalized speeds are used in the development of the governing equations. This leads to explicit expressions for the equation coefficients in forms readily converted into computer algorithms for their numerical evaluation. The inverse problem of determining the joint forces and moments when the system kinematics is known also is addressed.