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When one integrates a function of two variables x,y - a point function f(P) in the plane - subject to suitable regularity conditions along an arbitrary straight line g then one obtains in the integral values F(g), a line function. In Part A of the present paper the problem which is solved is the inversion of this linear functional transformation, that is the following questions are answered: can every line function satisfying suitable regularity conditions be regarded as constructed in this way? If so, is f uniquely known from F and how can f be calculated? In Part B a solution of the dual problem of calculating a line function F(g) from its point mean values f(P) is solved in a certain sense. Finally, in Part C certain generalizations are discussed, prompted by consideration of non-Euclidean manifolds as well as higher dimensional spaces. The treatment of these problems, themselves of interest, gains enhanced importance through the numerous relationships that exist between this topic and the theory of logarithmic and Newtonian potentials. These are mentioned at appropriate places in the text.