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Various models have evolved to test the sensitivity of electronic devices to electrostatic discharge (ESD), which include the human body model, machine model, and field-induced charged device model. The objective of this paper is to review both the static and dynamic aspects of these models and to analyze the charge and potential control of ESD events. Charge and geometry sensitivity factors are defined for a general two-body problem. The results should provide a better understanding of models that are used to simulate the direct effect of ESD and to provide methods to evaluate the effectiveness of ESD control processes. In particular, the electrostatic implications of small-gap geometries with application to microelectromechanical systems are reviewed.