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Dichotomy, or monostability, is one of the most important properties of nonlinear dynamic systems. For a dichotomous system, the solution of the system is either unbounded or convergent to a certain equilibrium, thus periodic or chaotic states cannot exist in the system. In this paper, a new methodology for the analysis of dichotomy of a class of nonlinear systems is proposed, and a linear matrix inequality (LMI)-based criterion is derived. The results are then extended to uncertain systems with real convex polytopic uncertainties in the linear part, and the LMI representation for robust dichotomy allows the use of parameter-dependent Lyapunov function. Based on the results, a dynamic output feedback controller guaranteeing robust dichotomy is designed, and the controller parameters are explicitly expressed by a set of feasible solutions of corresponding linear matrix inequalities. An extended Chua's circuit with two nonlinear resistors is given at the end of the paper to demonstrate the validity and applicability of the proposed approach. It is shown that by investigating the convergence of the bounded oscillating solutions of the system, our results suggests a viable and effective way for chaos control in nonlinear circuits.