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Operations research is an interdisciplinary science that develops scientific methods for modeling and solving decision-making problems. Arguably, the two most established and commonly practiced OR methodologies are mathematical programming (also called optimization) and discrete-event system simulation (called simulation). Mathematical programming describes a decision problem as decision variables and as mathematical functions of variables that capture the objective and problem constraints. For dynamic systems that are too complex to allow exact, closed-form solutions in continuous time, simulation can identify and describe events of interest and model their occurrences at discrete points in time. Python can glue together independent software environments to improve the software development cycle for sophisticated operations-research applications, which integrate different modeling methodologies.