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Wireless sensor networks with energy harvesting technologies: a game-theoretic approach to optimal energy management

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4 Author(s)
Niyato, D. ; Univ. of Manitoba, Winnipeg ; Hossain, E. ; Rashid, M.M. ; Bhargava, V.K.

Energy harvesting technologies are required for autonomous sensor networks for which using a power source from a fixed utility or manual battery recharging is infeasible. An energy harvesting device (e.g., a solar cell) converts different forms of environmental energy into electricity to be supplied to a sensor node. However, since it can produce energy only at a limited rate, energy saving mechanisms play an important role to reduce energy consumption in a sensor node. In this article we present an overview of the different energy harvesting technologies and the energy saving mechanisms for wireless sensor networks. The related research issues on energy efficiency for sensor networks using energy harvesting technology are then discussed. To this end, we present an optimal energy management policy for a solar-powered sensor node that uses a sleep and wakeup strategy for energy conservation. The problem of determining the sleep and wakeup probabilities is formulated as a bargaining game. The Nash equilibrium is used as the solution of this game.

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Wireless Communications, IEEE  (Volume:14 ,  Issue: 4 )