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When modeling objects that are small compared with the wavelength, e.g., biological cells at radio frequencies, the standard finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) method requires extremely small time-step sizes, which may lead to excessive computation times. The problem can be overcome by implementing a quasi-static approximate version of FDTD based on transferring the working frequency to a higher frequency and scaling back to the frequency of interest after the field has been computed. An approach to modeling and analysis of biological cells, incorporating a generic lumped-element membrane model, is presented here. Since the external medium of the biological cell is lossy material, a modified Berenger absorbing boundary condition is used to truncate the computation grid. Linear assemblages of cells are investigated and then Floquet periodic boundary conditions are imposed to imitate the effect of periodic replication of the assemblages. Thus, the analysis of a large structure of cells is made more computationally efficient than the modeling of the entire structure. The total fields of the simulated structures are shown to give reasonable and stable results at 900,1800, and 2450 MHz. This method will facilitate deeper investigation of the phenomena in the interaction between electromagnetic fields and biological systems.
Microwave Theory and Techniques, IEEE Transactions on (Volume:55 , Issue: 9 )
Date of Publication: Sept. 2007