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The issue of mine safety is quite outstanding recent years. Many shortages exist in mine safety systems supported by current technologies. The features of wireless sensor network determined that it well adapts the special needs of the environment monitoring. This paper presents the design of a mine safety system based on wireless sensor network which is called WMSS. Considering the unsafe factors under the mine, a sensor network was designed which can gather and analyze the concentration of gas under the mine. Thus, a system for realtime monitoring the environment under the mine is accomplished, and it can also provide the pre-warning for the fire. This paper discussed the components of the system, the topology of the network, hardware and software of the nodes. The software design of the operating system is discussed detailed from the aspect of energy efficient.