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A non-replenishable, long-lasting biological glucose sensor, for the purpose of continuous glucose surveillance, must be developed if an effective insulin delivery system is to be employed. Accurate continuous glucose monitoring could dictate both insulin/glucagon delivery from implantable pumps, which should achieve unparalleled glucose control. Biological products with high specificity for glucose, and their measurement of glucose-bound protein complex formation can be used to reflect glucose concentration. The system requires no extra substrates, no replenishment and no subsequent chemical reactions. There are no true known glucose receptors. There are, however, proteins that bind glucose, but only in the context of participating in an associated function, e.g. kinases or transport proteins. They can potentially be re-engineered into a competent "glucose receptor" and serve as a glucose sensor.