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Biological systems present remarkable adaptation, reliability, and robustness in various environments, even under hostility. Most of them are controlled by the individuals in a distributed and self-organized way. These biological mechanisms provide useful resources for designing the dynamical and adaptive routing schemes of wireless mobile sensor networks, in which the individual nodes should ideally operate without central control. This paper investigates crucial biologically inspired mechanisms and the associated techniques for resolving routing in wireless sensor networks, including Ant-based and genetic approaches. Furthermore, the principal contributions of this paper are as follows. We present a mathematical theory of the biological computations in the context of sensor networks; we further present a generalized routing framework in sensor networks by diffusing different modes of biological computations using Ant-based and genetic approaches; finally, an overview of several emerging research directions are addressed within the new biologically computational framework.