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In DHT system the uniform design decreases the routing performance and the highly dynamic characteristic increases the maintenance overhead. To solve those problems, in this paper we introduce SA- Chord, a novel P2P system based on self-adaptive joining. SA-Chord gets rid of the assuming of uniform. Nodes are divided into routing nodes and non-routing nodes in terms of their capacity. Routing nodes have strong capacity and form a routing ring to perform fast routing. To reduce the effect of highly dynamic characteristic, we design a new joining algorithm to decrease the cost of building finger table. Theory analysis shows that the average path length is [2k-1/2k] log2k R where k is a system parameter and R is the number of routing nodes. In the worst case, the cost of building finger table of routing node is O(logRlog2klogR). Initial experimental results show that SA-Chord has very good routing performance and very low maintenance overhead.