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Traditional image representations are not suited to conventional classification methods such as the linear discriminant analysis (LDA) because of the undersample problem (USP): the dimensionality of the feature space is much higher than the number of training samples. Motivated by the successes of the two-dimensional LDA (2DLDA) for face recognition, we develop a general tensor discriminant analysis (GTDA) as a preprocessing step for LDA. The benefits of GTDA, compared with existing preprocessing methods such as the principal components analysis (PCA) and 2DLDA, include the following: 1) the USP is reduced in subsequent classification by, for example, LDA, 2) the discriminative information in the training tensors is preserved, and 3) GTDA provides stable recognition rates because the alternating projection optimization algorithm to obtain a solution of GTDA converges, whereas that of 2DLDA does not. We use human gait recognition to validate the proposed GTDA. The averaged gait images are utilized for gait representation. Given the popularity of Gabor-function-based image decompositions for image understanding and object recognition, we develop three different Gabor-function-based image representations: 1) GaborD is the sum of Gabor filter responses over directions, 2) GaborS is the sum of Gabor filter responses over scales, and 3) GaborSD is the sum of Gabor filter responses over scales and directions. The GaborD, GaborS, and GaborSD representations are applied to the problem of recognizing people from their averaged gait images. A large number of experiments were carried out to evaluate the effectiveness (recognition rate) of gait recognition based on first obtaining a Gabor, GaborD, GaborS, or GaborSD image representation, then using GDTA to extract features and, finally, using LDA for classification. The proposed methods achieved good performance for gait recognition based on image sequences from the University of South Florida (USF) HumanID Database. Experimenta- - l comparisons are made with nine state-of-the-art classification methods in gait recognition.
Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence, IEEE Transactions on (Volume:29 , Issue: 10 )
Date of Publication: Oct. 2007