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The availability of sophisticated digital imaging technology has given rise to digital forgeries that are increasing in sophistication and frequency. We describe a technique for exposing such fakes by detecting inconsistencies in lighting. We show how to approximate complex lighting environments with a low-dimensional model and, further, how to estimate the model's parameters from a single image. Inconsistencies in the lighting model are th.en used as evidence of tampering.
Information Forensics and Security, IEEE Transactions on (Volume:2 , Issue: 3 )
Date of Publication: Sept. 2007