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Toward Pose-Invariant 2-D Face Recognition Through Point Distribution Models and Facial Symmetry

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2 Author(s)
Gonzalez-Jimenez, D. ; Dept. de Teor. de la Senal y Comun., Univ. de Vigo, Vigo ; Alba-Castro, J.L.

This paper proposes novel ways to deal with pose variations in a 2-D face recognition scenario. Using a training set of sparse face meshes, we built a point distribution model and identified the parameters which are responsible for controlling the apparent changes in shape due to turning and nodding the head, namely the pose parameters. Based on them, we propose two approaches for pose correction: 1) a method in which the pose parameters from both meshes are set to typical values of frontal faces, and 2) a method in which one mesh adopts the pose parameters of the other one. Finally, we obtain pose corrected meshes and, taking advantage of facial symmetry, virtual views are synthesized via Thin Plate Splines-based warping. Given that the corrected images are not embedded into a constant reference frame, holistic methods are not suitable for feature extraction. Instead, the virtual faces are fed into a system that makes use of Gabor filtering for recognition. Unlike other approaches that warp faces onto a mean shape, we show that if only pose parameters are modified, client specific information remains in the warped image and discrimination between subjects is more reliable. Statistical analysis of the authentication results obtained on the XM2VTS database confirm the hypothesis. Also, the CMU PIE database is used to assess the performance of the proposed methods in an identification scenario where large pose variations are present, achieving state-of-the-art results and outperforming both research and commercial techniques.

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Information Forensics and Security, IEEE Transactions on  (Volume:2 ,  Issue: 3 )