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Design and implementation of a digital differential relay for a 3-phase power transformer based on Kalman filtering theory

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2 Author(s)
Murty, Y.V.V.S. ; Dept. of Electr. Eng., New Brunswick Univ., Fredericton, NB, Canada ; Smolinski, W.J.

The design and implementation of a digital differential relay for a three-phase power transformer based on Kalman filtering theory are presented. The differential current is modeled as a sum of a fundamental, second harmonic, and exponentially decaying DC component, plus a random noise of known variance. The fundamental and second harmonic components are optimally estimated using a five-state Kalman filter. Inrush and internal fault conditions are distinguished by the relative magnitudes of their differential currents. The algorithm is implemented on a TMS 320 digital signal processor and tested using a three-phase transformer. Results show that the relay provides good restraint for inrush conditions and the relay operation time for internal faults is less than half a cycle

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Power Delivery, IEEE Transactions on  (Volume:3 ,  Issue: 2 )