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One of alternative methods of water disinfection is its treatment by pulsed electric discharges (PEDs). In this case, during the discharges, bacteria are destroyed by UV radiation with a significant share of energy in waves of 200-400 nm and by shock waves, which are formed at the initial stage of the discharge-column widening. This paper describes the electrophysical properties of PED in water, presents the results of an investigation of the physical, chemical, bactericidal, and fungicidal properties of treated water, and explains the prolonged microbial resistance of water (PMRW) - the phenomenon when bacteria continue to be destroyed for a long time (several months) after treatment by PED. The results of investigations make it possible to conclude that the PMRW is caused by the cooperative bactericidal action on microorganisms of both oxide nanoparticles of electrodes metal and positive ions emitted by the nanoparticles.