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In view of the data channel of optical burst switching network (OBS) is multiplexed statistically by transparent all-optical data traffic, its performance monitoring and fault monitoring has proved to be an extremely challenging research topic. Based on the analysis of shortcomings of average power monitoring method (AOPM) proposed in our previous work, a modified mechanism named instantaneous optical power monitoring (10 PM) with alarm filter is proposed to monitor the performance and find faults of the data channel of OBS networks. Staring at the data channel in a real-time way, it sends exact alarms for fault location module as soon as a fault occurs, while filter lots of false and redundancy alarms when the channels are healthy. Theoretical analysis and simulation results show: instantaneous optical power monitoring with alarm filter mechanism can restrain false alarms effectively and shorten fault detection time, especially when network load is heavy.