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Network lifetime maximization is a critical issue in wireless sensor networks since each sensor has a limited energy supply. Different from conventional sensors, video sensors compress the captured video before transmission. The encoding processing demands high power consumption, thus raises challenges to maintain a long network lifetime. In this paper, we formulate the network lifetime maximization problem in wireless visual sensor networks, and propose a fully distributed algorithm to solve this problem. The proposed algorithm maximizes the network lifetime by jointly optimizing the encoding powers, the source rates, and the link rates.