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We present an innovative architecture to realize a single feeder bidirectional amplified wavelength-division-multiplexing/time-division-multiplexing passive optical network based on modified nonreturn-to-zero differential phase-shift keying (DPSK) downstream signals at 20 Gb/s and a narrowband arrayed waveguide grating (AWG). The AWG plays at the same time the role of channel distributor, simultaneous demodulator for all DPSK channels, and eliminates the need for chromatic dispersion compensation. A saturated semiconductor optical amplifier (SOA) provides bidirectional amplification to compensate the splitter losses. The remodulated upstream signals are obtained at 1 Gb/s by means of a reflective SOA. Experimental results show error-free operation on both downstream and upstream signal.