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The importance of knowledge management (KM) efforts is well recognized in the popular and academic press. However, KM efforts do not always lead to improved firm performance. This paper argues that different kinds of KM efforts may be appropriate for firms pursuing different business strategies, and the impact of a KM effort on firm performance would depend on whether the effort is aligned with the firm's business strategy. Prior literature on organizational learning, KM, and business strategy is used to develop these arguments, and also to identify the nature of KM efforts that would be most appropriate for firms pursuing Defender, Analyzer, and Prospector business strategies. An event study is used to evaluate the stock market reaction to a firm's public announcement of the KM effort. The empirical results, based on 103 KM announcements from 1995 to 2002, are consistent with the theory-based expectations, showing alignment between the KM effort and business strategy to be positively associated with impact on firm value. Some of the implications of these results for practice and future research are examined.