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Errors in the secondary path model of the filtered-x LMS (FXLMS) algorithm will lead to its divergence when the eigenvalues of the cross-correlation matrix between the estimated filtered reference and the true filtered reference signals are not all located in the right half plane. This cross-correlation matrix has a (block) Toeplitz structure whose dimension is determined by the number of adaptive filter coefficients. Using results on the asymptotic pseudospectrum of Toeplitz matrices, a frequency-domain condition on the model is derived to ensure stability. The condition is sufficient and necessary for a large number of filter coefficients. A transient analysis shows that the sufficient condition given by Wang and Ren  is only necessary to prevent an initial increase of the error in the adaptive filter coefficients (critical behavior).
Date of Publication: Aug. 2007