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We consider continuous phase modulations (CPMs) in iteratively decoded serially concatenated schemes. Although the overall receiver complexity mainly depends on that of the CPM detector, almost all papers in the literature consider the optimal maximum a posteriori (MAP) symbol detection algorithm and only a few attempts have been made to design low-complexity suboptimal schemes. This problem is faced in this paper by first considering the case of an ideal coherent detection, then extending it to the more interesting case of a transmission over a typical satellite channel affected by phase noise. In both cases, we adopt a simplified representation of an M-ary CPM signal based on the principal pulses of its Laurent decomposition. Since it is not possible to derive the exact detection rule by means of a probabilistic reasoning, the framework of factor graphs (FGs) and the sum-product algorithm (SPA) is used. In the case of channels affected by phase noise, continuous random variables representing the phase samples are explicitly introduced in the FG. By pursuing the principal approach to manage continuous random variables in a FG, i.e., the canonical distribution approach, two algorithms are derived which do not require the presence of known (pilot) symbols, thanks to the intrinsic differential encoder embedded in the CPM modulator.