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In this article, the basic principle of X-ray phase contrast imaging was firstly introduced. According to the microcosmic mechanism of interaction of the X-ray and the material, the relationship between atomic scattering factor and complex refractive index had been obtained. And then, the emphasis was given to the calculation and analysis of two important physical factors was related to the X-ray phase contrast imaging. The conclusion of phase item was far larger than absorption item had also been gained, and the physical foundation and basis of X-ray phase contrast imaging had been further demonstrated.