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A Time Division Beacon Scheduling Mechanism for IEEE 802.15.4/Zigbee Cluster-Tree Wireless Sensor Networks

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3 Author(s)
Anis Koubaa ; Polytechnic Institute of Porto, Portugal; Al-Imam Muhammad Ibn Saud University, Saudi Arabia ; Andre Cunha ; Mario Alves

While the IEEE 802.15.4/Zigbee protocol stack is being considered as a promising technology for low-cost low-power wireless sensor networks (WSNs), several issues in their specifications are still open. One of those ambiguous issues is how to build a synchronized cluster-tree network, which is quite suitable for ensuring QoS support in WSNs. In fact, the current IEEE 802.15.4/Zigbee specifications restrict the synchronization in the beacon-enabled mode (by the generation of periodic beacon frames) to star-based networks, while they support multi-hop networking using the peer-to-peer mesh topology, but with no synchronization. Even though both specifications mention the possible use of cluster-tree topologies, which combine multi-hop and synchronization features, the description on how to effectively construct such a network topology is missing. This paper tackles this problem, unveiling the ambiguities regarding the use of the cluster-tree topology and proposing a synchronization mechanism based on Time Division Beacon Scheduling to construct cluster-tree WSNs. We also propose a methodology for an efficient duty-cycle management in each router (cluster-head) of a cluster-tree WSN that ensures the fairest use of bandwidth resources. The feasibility of the proposal is clearly demonstrated through an experimental test bed based on our own implementation of the IEEE 802.15.4/Zigbee protocols.

Published in:

19th Euromicro Conference on Real-Time Systems (ECRTS'07)

Date of Conference:

4-6 July 2007