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In this paper, a nodal harmonic balance (HB) formulation is presented for the phase and amplitude noise analysis of free-running oscillators. The implications of using different constraints in the resolution of the perturbed-oscillator equations are studied. The obtained formulation allows the prediction of the possible spectrum resonances without ill conditioning at low frequency offset from the carrier. The noise spectrum is meaningfully expressed in terms of the eigenvalues of a newly defined matrix, obtained from the linearization of the nodal HB system about the steady-state solution. The cases of real or complex-conjugate dominant eigenvalues are distinguished. The developed phase-noise formulation is extended to a system of two coupled oscillators. The phase and amplitude noise analyses have been applied to a push-push oscillator at 18 GHz, a bipolar oscillator at 1 GHz, and a coupled system of two field-effect transistor oscillators at 6 GHz.
Microwave Theory and Techniques, IEEE Transactions on (Volume:55 , Issue: 7 )
Date of Publication: July 2007