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A high dynamic range CMOS image sensor providing a user-programmable power responsivity curve is presented. Each pixel integrates, besides a 4T active pixel structure, a voltage comparator and an analog memory to implement a time-to-saturation scheme while also providing the standard integrated photo-current signal. The sensor generates two 10-bit analog outputs allowing a typical dynamic range exceeding 120 dB with a temporal noise lower than 0.13% and a fixed pattern noise of 0.4% (1.7%) of the total signal swing (2 V) at low (high) irradiance without any external calibration procedures. A 140 times 140-pixel array has been fabricated in a 0.35-mum, two-poly four-metal (2P4M), 3.3-V standard CMOS technology. The chip measures 3.9 times 4.6 mm2 with a pixel pitch of 15 mum and a fill factor of 20%.
Date of Publication: July 2007