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The transform approach to speech coding has been established for some time, and has been shown to be very efficient in controlling the bit allocation and the shape of the noise spectrum. Various transform coders have been reported which produce high-quality digital speech at around 16 kbit/s. Although these coders can maintain good quality down to about 9.6 kbit/s, they perform poorly at lower bit rates. Here we discuss how vector quantisation (VQ) can be used to improve the quality of transform coders. We describe one specific design of vector-quantised transform coder (VQTC) which follows on from earlier work, and which is capable of producing good-quality speech at as low as 4.8 kbit/s.