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In this paper, a study of the temporal evolution of the elements of 3 x 3 covariance matrix using an X-band polarimetric ground-based SAR sensor is proposed. Although the heterogeneity of the scenario allows to select different target typologies, the study is mainly focused on the analysis of azimuthally symmetric distributed targets. The fluctuations of the most representative elements of [C] as a function of time and the decorrelation among the polarimetric channels are investigated. A relation with atmospheric parameters like temperature, humidity and wind is considered in order to make out the weight these parameters can influence the polarimetric signature of the observed area.