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Ultra-wideband (UWB) communication systems are generally applied to short-range wireless communications. In order to achieve higher rates or to support multiple access capabilities, direct sequence spread spectrum (DSSS) techniques have been introduced to UWB systems, and multiple pulses corresponding to a certain pseudo-noise (PN) code are transmitted to represent a symbol. In addition, the concept of M-ary code shift keying (M-CSK) was introduced into DSSS systems to achieve higher rates. In this work, we propose an M-CSK modulation technique based on the large set of Kasami sequences since it possesses good code properties, including a large code set size and low cross correlations. The modulation and demodulation schemes are developed, and the system performance in additive white Gaussian noise (AWGN) and UWB channels exposed to multiple user interference is investigated thoroughly. It was found that the Kasami M-CSK modulation is superior to other M-CSK modulation schemes in the bandwidth efficiency, and therefore a higher data rate can be achieved. Furthermore, based on our proposed demodulation scheme, the hardware complexity of receivers can be greatly reduced to O(M1/3), and the implementation of receivers for a very large M becomes feasible.