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Scaling of K-Shell Emission From Z -Pinches: Z to ZR

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11 Author(s)

Experiments in the last few years at the 20-MA Z Accelerator have produced significant K-shell X-ray output from a variety of initial load materials, including aluminum (1.7-keV photons, 400-kJ yield), argon (3.1-keV photons, 300-kJ yield), titanium (4.8-keV photons, 100-kJ yield), stainless steel (6.7-keV photons, 50-kJ yield), and copper (8.4-keV photons, 20-kJ yield). K-shell scaling theories developed at the Naval Research Laboratory [K. G. Whitney , Phys. Rev. E 50, 2166 (1994)] in the 1990s were benchmarked against the Al K-shell emission data from 10-MA facilities. The experiments at Z have not only led to a heuristic validation of this original theory but have also provided the data to fine tune the models for application to higher photon energies and for extension to higher current generators. The upgrade of the Z Accelerator to ZR, which will provide 26 MA to a -pinch load, should increase the radiated K-shell output for sources previously fielded at Z and will extend the range of photon energies where measurable radiation can be observed, which is likely up to 13 keV. A summary of the K-shell experiments at Z is presented, as well as an overview of the modified empirical-scaling theory. Proposed load configurations for ZR are discussed, as well as predictions for K-shell output.

Published in:

IEEE Transactions on Plasma Science  (Volume:35 ,  Issue: 3 )