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We have performed a numerical and experimental analysis of the thermal behavior of electrically injected microdisk lasers that are defined in an InGaAsP-based thin film bonded on top of a silicon wafer. Both the turn-on as well as the pulsed-regime temperature evolution in the lasing region was simulated using the finite-element method. The simulation results are in good agreement with experimental data, which was extracted from the broadening of the time-averaged emission spectra. Lasing at room temperature was only possible in pulsed regime due to the high thermal resistance (10 K/mW). Some strategies to decrease the thermal resistance of the microdisk lasers are proposed and discussed.