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Parametric Yield Analysis and Optimization in Leakage Dominated Technologies

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4 Author(s)

Parametric yield loss has become a serious concern in nanometer technologies. In this paper, we propose a methodology to estimate and optimize the parametric yield of a design in the presence of process variations. We discuss the impact of leakage on parametric yield given that leakage causes the parametric yield window to shrink by imposing a two-sided constraint in conjunction with performance targets on the yield window. We present a mathematical framework for yield estimation under process variation for a given power and frequency constraints. The model is validated against Monte Carlo SPICE simulations in a 90-nm CMOS process and is shown to have a typical error of less than 5%. We then demonstrate the importance of optimal supply and threshold voltage selection for yield maximization. Our results show that parametric yield is highly sensitive to supply voltage with only a 5% change in the supply voltage potentially leading to nearly 15% yield degradation. We also investigate the sensitivity of parametric yield to required frequency and power constraints. Finally, we apply the proposed framework to the problem of maximizing the shipping frequency in the presence of given yield and power constraints.

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Very Large Scale Integration (VLSI) Systems, IEEE Transactions on  (Volume:15 ,  Issue: 6 )