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A design-oriented analysis of microwave transmission-line class-E and class-F amplifiers is presented in this paper. Multiharmonic transmission-line load networks are analyzed and compared in terms of harmonic suppression and their effects on output power and efficiency. Based on this study, a design of highly efficient monolithic-microwave integrated-circuit amplifiers has been carried out. To allow circuit optimization and to simplify the design process, analytic expressions were derived for the most practical multiharmonic transmission-line networks. Fabricated amplifiers achieve state-of-the-art efficiency of 56.2% and 59.0% for class-E and class-F operation at K-band for power levels of 19.1 and 20.0 dBm, respectively. Moreover, without the need for supplementary filtering sections, harmonic suppression for operation well into compression is better than -25 and -30 dBc for the transmission-line class-F and class-E amplifiers, respectively.