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To mitigate the non-line-of-sight (NLOS) error of ultra-wideband (UWB) ranging caused by obstructions in dense multipath environments, this paper proposed a novel NLOS error mitigation method. The principles and characteristics of NLOS error are analyzed. Based on the signal propagation path loss model, the NLOS error estimation expression is deduced and further used to calibrate the ranging results. Low complexity path detection algorithms are proposed for implementation of the method. Test on measured data shows that the method can improve the ranging precision greatly.