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In this paper, a new guided wave structure of half mode substrate integrated waveguide (HMSIW) for microwave and millimeter wave application is proposed for the first time. The principle of the HMSIW is described, and its propagation characteristics are simulated and measured. The measured results at microwave and millimeter wave bands show that the attenuation of it is less than that of conventional microstrip and even SIW, but its size is nearly half of a SIW. Thus, we can further compress the size of a microwave or millimeter wave integrated circuit based on this new guided wave structure.