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Threshold-voltage (Vth) fluctuation due to random telegraph signal (RTS) in flash memory was observed for the first time. A large amount of data of Vth fluctuation was acquired by using a 90-nm-node memory array, and it was confirmed that a few memory cells have large RTS fluctuation exceeding 0.2 V. It was found that program-and-erase cycles increase Vth amplitude in a flash memory. It was also found by simulation and measurement that tail-bits are generated due to RTS in multilevel flash operation. The amount of Vth broadening due to the tail-bits was estimated to become larger as the scaling of memory cells advances and reaches more than 0.3 V in the 45-nm node. These results thus demonstrate that RTS will become a prominent issue in designing multilevel flash memory in the 45-nm node and beyond.