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This paper presents a method of 3D SLAM using a single camera. We utilize a Rao-Blackwellised particle filter (RBPF) to deal with a large number of landmarks. A difficulty in monocular SLAM is robustness to outliers and noise, which may cause false estimates especially under short baseline conditions. We propose an exhaustive pose-space search that finds all the plausible hypotheses efficiently using epipolar geometry. The obtained pose hypotheses are refined by the RBPF. Simulations and experiments show that the proposed method successfully performed 3D SLAM with a small number of particles.