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Nonlinear Dynamic Modeling of Spike Train Transformations for Hippocampal-Cortical Prostheses

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6 Author(s)
Dong Song ; Dept. of Biomed. Eng., Univ. of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA ; Chan, R.H.M. ; Marmarelis, V.Z. ; Hampson, R.E.
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One of the fundamental principles of cortical brain regions, including the hippocampus, is that information is represented in the ensemble firing of populations of neurons, i.e., spatio-temporal patterns of electrophysiological activity. The hippocampus has long been known to be responsible for the formation of declarative, or fact-based, memories. Damage to the hippocampus disrupts the propagation of spatio-temporal patterns of activity through hippocampal internal circuitry, resulting in a severe anterograde amnesia. Developing a neural prosthesis for the damaged hippocampus requires restoring this multiple-input, multiple-output transformation of spatio-temporal patterns of activity. Because the mechanisms underlying synaptic transmission and generation of electrical activity in neurons are inherently nonlinear, any such prosthesis must be based on a nonlinear multiple-input, multiple-output model. In this paper, we have formulated the transformational process of multi-site propagation of spike activity between two subregions of the hippocampus (CA3 and CA1) as the identification of a multiple-input, multiple-output (MIMO) system, and proposed that it can be decomposed into a series of multiple-input, single-output (MISO) systems. Each MISO system is modeled as a physiologically plausible structure that consists of 1) linear/nonlinear feedforward Volterra kernels modeling synaptic transmission and dendritic integration, 2) a linear feedback Volterra kernel modeling spike-triggered after-potentials, 3) a threshold for spike generation, 4) a summation process for somatic integration, and 5) a noise term representing intrinsic neuronal noise and the contributions of unobserved inputs. Input and output spike trains were recorded from hippocampal CA3 and CA1 regions of rats performing a spatial delayed-nonmatch-to-sample memory task that requires normal hippocampal function. Kernels were expanded with Laguerre basis functions and estimated using a maximum-likelihood m- - ethod. Complexity of the feedforward kernel was progressively increased to capture higher-order system nonlinear dynamics. Results showed higher prediction accuracies as kernel complexity increased. Self-kernels describe the nonlinearities within each input. Cross-kernels capture the nonlinear interaction between inputs. Secondand third-order nonlinear models were found to successfully predict the CA1 output spike distribution based on CA3 input spike trains. First-order, linear models were shown to be insufficient

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Biomedical Engineering, IEEE Transactions on  (Volume:54 ,  Issue: 6 )