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This paper describes a class of microminiature, thin-film devices known as integrated thermionic circuits (ITC) capable of extended operation in ambient temperatures up to 500Â°C. The evolution of the ITC concept is discussed. A set of practical design and performance equations is demonstrated. Recent experimental results are discussed in which both devices and simple circuits have successfully operated in 500Â°C environments for extended periods of time (greater than 11000 h).