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Optical Pattern Generation Using a Spatial Light Modulator for Maskless Lithography

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3 Author(s)
Il Woong Jung ; Dept. of Electr. Eng., Stanford Univ., CA ; Jen-Shiang Wang ; Solgaard, O.

In this paper, we present a piston-type spatial light modulator (SLM) as a programmable optical pattern generator for maskless lithography. The SLM is a dual-lever-type actuator with pixel-overlapping springs to achieve low voltage actuation with a small capacitor area. Large arrays of up to ~40000 mirrors with 20-mum pixels and ~17000 mirrors with 30-mum pixels have been fabricated. The arrays have various prewired configurations to alleviate the need to control all the pixels individually. The mirrors have high resonance frequencies for fast response and achieve deflections of lambda/2 (lambda=193 nm for 20-mum pixels and lambda=633 nm for 30-mum pixels) at voltages less than 100 V. The mirrors are fabricated using thin-film processing and chemical mechanical polishing of the reflector layer. Using the SLM in an aerial imaging system, we demonstrate the generation of dark lines, dark areas, linewidth modulation, and subgrid positioning. We also demonstrate compensation of image shifts due to through-focus wafer drift using a double exposure (or phase-compensated exposure) technique

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Selected Topics in Quantum Electronics, IEEE Journal of  (Volume:13 ,  Issue: 2 )