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The general fault analysis problem can be divided into two parts: fault detection and diagnosis (location). Fourier series, autocorrelation, and other techniques have been used for fault detection. However, these approaches cannot be utilized for locating the faults. In this paper a methodology is presented to locate faulty cylinder(s). The procedure involves the development of a mathematical model of the engine dynamics. This model takes into consideration the cylinder gas pressure, engine inertia, and load. The resultant torque is computed by using parameter estimation techniques. The parameter estimation technique employed can determine time-varying parameters without prior knowledge of the structure of the parameter. In the problem at hand, this is an important requirement. The resultant torque is the net of the cylinder gas torque and the frictional torque. The model and the estimation procedure have been verified by performing tests on a single-cylinder engine. A discriminant function has been defined to classify the performance of each cylinder. Our results indicate that the amplitude of the resultant torque can be used to identify the faulty cylinder(s). We have verified this approach by tests and studies on a six-cylinder engine. In our experiments we have studied cases involving one or two faulty cylinders.