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In this paper, results of a Monte Carlo simulation of the effect of noise on the relationship between the microwave emissivity of soil and its moisture content are presented. It is found that whenever the magnitude of the noise for the independent variable, in this case the soil moisture, is increased, both the slope of the regression and the correlation coefficient decrease. In pÃ¡rticular, when the noise has a magnitude equivalent to a coefficient of variation of 0.25, the slope and correlation coefficient are in good agreement with those obtained from the data of a 21-cm airborne microwave radiometer which was flown over a test site in Hand County, South Dakota. The comparison was made using a linear relationship to determine the estimated emissivity from the ground measurements of soil moisture. The linear relationship was derived from a radiative transfer model calculation of the microwave emissivities using realistic soil-moisture profiles. The effect of surface roughness was included in the relationship, and the variability of the surface roughness was also simulated by a Monte Carlo technique.