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Snow-Cover Parameters Retrieved from Nimbus-7 Scanning Multichannel Microwave Radiometer (SMMR) Data

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3 Author(s)
Kunzi, Klaus F. ; Institute of Applied Physics, University of Bern, Bern, Switzerland ; Patil, Subash ; Rott, Helmut

The Nimbus-7 satellite launched on October 24, 1978, carries a multifrequency, dual-polarized microwave imager. The instrument is designed to sense the ocean surface, the atmosphere, and land surfaces remotely. From previous ground-based and satellite-based microwave experiments, it is well known, that snow cover over land has a very distinct effect on the microwave signatures of the earth surface. It was the goal of this study to show that the three snow-cover parameters: extent, snow water equivalent, and onset of snow melt can be determined using scanning multichannel microwave radiometer (SMMR) data. Our analysis has shown, that the three snow parameters mentioned above are retrievable with sufficient accuracy to be of great value in climatology, meteorology, and hydrology. Snow extent is determined for dry snow cover with depth ¿5 cm, snow water equivalent can be determined on a regional basis with ¿2 g/cm2 rms accuracy, and the onset of snow melt is clearly visible by the detection of melt and refreeze cycles prior to snow runoff. The algorithms derived are simple enough to be incorporated in fully automated operational data analysis schemes.

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Geoscience and Remote Sensing, IEEE Transactions on  (Volume:GE-20 ,  Issue: 4 )