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Real copper and niobium surfaces, that is surfaces which have been in contact with the air and cleaning agents, and in consequence are covered with a thin layer of adsorbed molecules, have a total secondary electron yield (SEY) greater than one. To reduce SEY, various carbon coatings, deposited on real surfaces have been studied: thin evaporated graphite films, implanted C+ ions, sprayed carbon and carbonsoot layers. In all cases, SEY decreases, but always remains above one in a primary electron energy domain except for soot, giving SEY values as low as O.5.
Date of Publication: Aug. 1985