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Decentralized cognitive MAC for opportunistic spectrum access in ad hoc networks: A POMDP framework

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4 Author(s)
Qing Zhao ; Dept. of Electr. & Comput. Eng., California Univ., Davis, CA ; Lang Tong ; Ananthram Swami ; Yunxia Chen

We propose decentralized cognitive MAC protocols that allow secondary users to independently search for spectrum opportunities without a central coordinator or a dedicated communication channel. Recognizing hardware and energy constraints, we assume that a secondary user may not be able to perform full-spectrum sensing or may not be willing to monitor the spectrum when it has no data to transmit. We develop an analytical framework for opportunistic spectrum access based on the theory of partially observable Markov decision process (POMDP). This decision-theoretic approach integrates the design of spectrum access protocols at the MAC layer with spectrum sensing at the physical layer and traffic statistics determined by the application layer of the primary network. It also allows easy incorporation of spectrum sensing error and constraint on the probability of colliding with the primary users. Under this POMDP framework, we propose cognitive MAC protocols that optimize the performance of secondary users while limiting the interference perceived by primary users. A suboptimal strategy with reduced complexity yet comparable performance is developed. Without additional control message exchange between the secondary transmitter and receiver, the proposed decentralized protocols ensure synchronous hopping in the spectrum between the transmitter and the receiver in the presence of collisions and spectrum sensing errors

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IEEE Journal on Selected Areas in Communications  (Volume:25 ,  Issue: 3 )