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A dual mesh scheme for finite element based reconstruction algorithms

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4 Author(s)
K. D. Paulsen ; Thayer Sch. of Eng., Dartmouth Coll., Hanover, NH, USA ; P. M. Meaney ; M. J. Moskowitz ; J. M. Sullivan

The finite element (FE) method has found several applications in emerging imaging modalities, especially microwave imaging which has been shown to be potentially useful in a number of areas including thermal estimation. In monitoring temperature distributions, the biological phenomena of temperature variations of tissue dielectric properties is exploited. By imaging these properties and their changes during such therapies as hyperthermia, temperature distributions can be deduced using difference imaging techniques. The authors focus on a microwave imaging problem where the hybrid element (HE) method is used in conjunction with a dual mesh scheme in an effort to image complex wavenumbers, k2. The dual mesh scheme is introduced to improve the reconstructed images of tissue properties and is ideally suited for systems using FE methods as their computational base. Since the electric fields typically vary rapidly over a given body when irradiated by high-frequency electromagnetic sources, a dense mesh is needed for these fields to be accurately represented. Conversely, k2 may be fairly constant over subregions of the body which would allow for a less dense sampling of this parameter in those regions. In the dual mesh system employed, the first mesh, which is uniformly dense, is used for calculating the electric fields over the body whereas the second mesh, which is nonuniform and less dense, is used for representing the k2 distribution within the region of interest. The authors examine the 2-D TM polarization case for a pair of dielectric distributions on both a large and small problem to demonstrate the flexibility of the dual mesh method along with some of the difficulties associated with larger imaging problems. Results demonstrate the capabilities of the dual mesh concept in comparison to a single mesh approach for a variety of test cases, suggesting that the dual mesh method is critical for FE based image reconstruction where rapidly varying physical quantities are used to recover smoother property profiles, as can occur in microwave imaging of biological bodies

Published in:

IEEE Transactions on Medical Imaging  (Volume:14 ,  Issue: 3 )