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Drawing on Air: Input Techniques for Controlled 3D Line Illustration

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3 Author(s)
Keefe, D.F. ; Brown Univ., Providence ; Zeleznik, R.C. ; Laidlaw, D.H.

We present drawing on air, a haptic-aided input technique for drawing controlled 3D curves through space. Drawing on air addresses a control problem with current 3D modeling approaches based on sweeping movement of the hands through the air. Although artists praise the immediacy and intuitiveness of these systems, a lack of control makes it nearly impossible to create 3D forms beyond quick design sketches or gesture drawings. Drawing on air introduces two new strategies for more controlled 3D drawing: one-handed drag drawing and two-handed tape drawing. Both approaches have advantages for drawing certain types of curves. We describe a tangent preserving method for transitioning between the two techniques while drawing. Haptic-aided redrawing and line weight adjustment while drawing are also supported in both approaches. In a quantitative user study evaluation by illustrators, the one and two-handed techniques performed at roughly the same level and both significantly outperformed freehand drawing and freehand drawing augmented with a haptic friction effect. We present the design and results of this experiment, as well as user feedback from artists and 3D models created in a style of line illustration for challenging artistic and scientific subjects.

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Visualization and Computer Graphics, IEEE Transactions on  (Volume:13 ,  Issue: 5 )