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Efficient Entropy Estimation Based on Doubly Stochastic Models for Quantized Wavelet Image Data

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2 Author(s)
Matthew D. Gaubatz ; Dept. of Electr. & Comput. Eng., Cornell Univ., Ithaca, NY ; Sheila S. Hemami

Under a rate constraint, wavelet-based image coding involves strategic discarding of information such that the remaining data can be described with a given amount of rate. In a practical coding system, this task requires knowledge of the relationship between quantization step size and compressed rate for each group of wavelet coefficients, the R-Q curve. A common approach to this problem is to fit each subband with a scalar probability distribution and compute entropy estimates based on the model. This approach is not effective at rates below 1.0 bits-per-pixel because the distributions of quantized data do not reflect the dependencies in coefficient magnitudes. These dependencies can be addressed with doubly stochastic models, which have been previously proposed to characterize more localized behavior, though there are tradeoffs between storage, computation time, and accuracy. Using a doubly stochastic generalized Gaussian model, it is demonstrated that the relationship between step size and rate is accurately described by a low degree polynomial in the logarithm of the step size. Based on this observation, an entropy estimation scheme is presented which offers an excellent tradeoff between speed and accuracy; after a simple data-gathering step, estimates are computed instantaneously by evaluating a single polynomial for each group of wavelet coefficients quantized with the same step size. These estimates are on average within 3% of a desired target rate for several of state-of-the-art coders

Published in:

IEEE Transactions on Image Processing  (Volume:16 ,  Issue: 4 )