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As a renal patient's clinical condition deteriorates, slow-wave-related activity typically appears in the electroencephalogram (EEG) and disappears or is reduced as the clinical situation ameliorates. These changes can be quantitatively monitored by computer calculation of spectral estimates of the amount of slow-wave-related power in the EEG. The computer quantified EEG was used as one end point measure in the study of patients who participated in the National Cooperative Dialysis Study (NCDS). This study was designed to evaluate quantitative guidelines for administering dialysis therapy on a individualized basis.